levels of formalization:
- what do previous data tell us - deterministic models (e.g., average, linear regression)
- what do previous data tell us - stochastic models (e.g., range, standard dev., standard error)
- increased sophistication (e.g., non-normal forms of stochasticity: null models, interesting parametric distributions).
- meta-analysis - combining previous empirical studies
- models with and without feedback or loops
Modeling data, modeling dynamics.